Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
onjoined twinning is a rare and challenging congenital malformation, which has stimulated human interest from early times. For example, conjoined twins have been depicted in sculpture and art dating back from before the time of Christ. Early, though unsuccessful efforts were undertaken to separate the conjoined twins, but occasional successful separation was not reported until the 1960s. More routine success with separation has only occurred over the last 15 to 20 years.
Crohn's disease (CD), also known as regional enteritis, is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) described by Crohn in 1932. The most common affected site of bowel inflammation is the distal part of the small intestine known as the ileum, although the colon and other segments of the intestinal tract can be involved as well. The other common type of IBD is termed ulcerative colitis, although this disease is limited to the colon (large intestine).
Cystic hygromas are varying sized cystic abnormalities of the lymphatic system occurring in perhaps 1 in 10,000 births. The word is derived from the Greek meaning moist or watery tumor and can occur equally in boys and girls. Approximately 50 or 60 percent are present at birth and about 80-90 percent appear or are detected before the end of the second year of life.
Empyema is a chest infection. Unlike pneumonia, which is an infection in the lung, empyema occurs in the space between the lung and the chest wall known as the pleural space (or pleural cavity). In children, empyema is usually a complication of pneumonia. Inflammatory reaction to the pneumonia produces fluid in the pleural space (“effusion”). If the infection from the pneumonia spreads to this fluid, pus may accumulate, resulting in empyema.
Epididymitis and Orchitis
Epididymitis is a collection of tissue just behind the testicle. Epididymitis may have an infectious or inflammation. Most commonly, epididymitis occurs from the reflux of infected urine or from sexually acquired disease caused by gonococci and Chlamydia . This distinction is important because different antiobiotics are needed for the different causes. Occasionally, epididymitis develops after excessive straining or lifting and the reflux of urine into the vas deferens, which causes a chemical epididymitis; this usually resolves promptly. Any non–sexually active child, especially a prepubertal child who develops epididymitis, should be evaluated for a urinary tract abnormality.
Foreign Bodies and Bezoars
Ingestion of foreign bodies is a problem because of the tendency for small children to put everything into their mouths. There may or may not be history of ingestion of a foreign body. If a foreign body does not become stuck in the duodenum or at the first part of the small intestine (ligament of Treitz), it ordinarily passes through the intestinal tract. A foreign body that perforates the intestine may produce obstruction.
Hirschsprung's Disease - Part 1 of 3
Hirschsprung's Disease - Part 2 of 3
Hirschsprung's Disease - Part 3 of 3
Hydrops (Swelling) of the Gallbladder
Grave’s disease (hyperthyroidism) is generally diagnosed in adults, but can be seen in children. This can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter). Although this usually occurs in older children, it can be seen in infants of mother’s with Grave’s disease. Infants generally respond to medicines (iodine and propylthiouracil) and do not require surgery.
A series of developmental steps are involved in the formation of the normal anatomy of the lower end of the anus, rectum, and genitourinary (GU) tract. By the fourth week of development, the cloaca and a structure called the cloacal membrane are present. The cloaca is a normal structure in birds and is present for a short period of time during the development of the human before birth. A cloaca is a structure into which the colon, urinary tract and genitalia all drain and exit the body with a single opening. A human goes thorough a stage of development where a cloaca normally exists and then goes on to develop separate openings for the rectum, urinary tract and in girls, the vagina. This normal development is in much part due to the development of a structure called the cloacal membrane. If the membrane does not develop normally the cloaca may persist at birth in girls or boys will develop some variant of imperforate anus.