Pectus excavatum, or funnel chest, is a congenital malformation of the anterior chest characterized by a prominent depression of the body of the sternum, usually involving its lower half to two-thirds. The lower rib cartilages bend posteriorly to form a depression. The first and second ribs, and the upper sternum are essentially normal. Asymmetric deformities are common, with the depression being deeper on the right with the sternum being rotated posteriorly to that side. In most instances however, the depression is involves the lower half of the sternum and is symmetrical with a decrease in the depth of the chest cavity.
Perianal and Perirectal Abcess
Pyloric stenosis is the most common disorder causing vomiting in infancy which requires surgery.
There are numerous definitions for short-bowel syndrome (SBS). The simplest definition is that there is inadequate intestine to maintain normal nutrition by eating. Because infants and children require increased calories to grow and develop, SBS can have a more devastating effect in these patients.
Solid Chest Tumors
he spleen was long believed to be an unnecessary organ that could be removed without causing any problems. Important functions of the spleen have now been discovered, however, including the removal of bacteria and waste from the blood, the making of antibodies, and the making of red blood cells.
Torsion of Testicular Appendix
Torsion of an appendix testis and appendix epididymis are common causes of torsion. Both of these are small tags of normal tissue attached to the testicle.
Thyroglossal Duct Cysts and Sinuses
The frequency of thyroid cancer has increased since the 1960’s, and is one of the most common pediatric cancers.
A thyroid nodule is a lump found in the gland. They can be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Although thyroid nodules are more common in adults than children, they are more likely (20-30%) to be malignant in children.
Thyroid Tissue at the Wrong Site (Ectopic)
Thyroiditis is enlargement of the thyroid gland from an autoimmune (antibodies to one’s own body) reaction. In this disease, the thyroid cells are damaged by antibodies. This is most commonly called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or autoimmune chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. It is a common cause of enlargement of the thyroid in children, although it is more common in adults. Hashimoto’s thyroid is 10 times more common in females.
Torsion of Testicular Appendix
Torticollis, or wry neck, results from scarring and a mass in the middle portion of the large muscle in the neck known as the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) was described almost 150 years ago. Despite significant advancements in the knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), this disorder’s cause and treatment remain unresolved. Although classically thought of as a disorder of adults, many children are affected. The pediatric surgeon is often instrumental in caring for patients with this disabling disease.
After normal separation of the umbilical cord; pink, healing tissue called granulation tissue may persist in the belly button and enlarge into a mass called an umbilical granuloma . This is often associated with umbilical drainage and swelling with redness of the surrounding skin.
Umbilical Infection (omphalitis)
Beginning in the fourth week of fetal life the front of the abdomen develops by tissue folding in from the sides, top and bottom. Between 6 and 10 weeks’ gestation, some of the fetus’ intestine is located outside of the main body cavity but it returns to the developing abdomen by the 10th week. By 12 weeks’ gestation, the large abdominal wall muscles in the front, called the rectus muscles, join each other in the midline except at the site of the umbilical ring (belly button), where the muscles are separated by tissue.